Demystifying Melanoma Skin Cancer : Symptoms, Stages ,causes

Melanoma, a type of skin cancer, often appears as an enigmatic threat. This article aims to unravel the mysteries surrounding melanoma by shedding light on its symptoms, stages, causes, treatment options, prevention strategies, and diagnosis methods. Let’s embark on this journey to understand melanoma comprehensively.

What is melanoma?

Melanoma is a type of skin cancer that originates in melanocytes, the cells responsible for producing melanin. Melanin is the pigment that gives color to our skin, hair, and eyes. When melanocytes become cancerous, they can form malignant tumors on the skin. Melanoma is often characterized by its potential to spread to other parts of the body.

Signs of Melanoma

Recognizing the signs of melanoma is crucial for early detection and successful treatment. Melanoma often starts as an abnormal mole or a change in the appearance of an existing mole. The “ABCDE” rule and the addition of “E” for “Evolution” are helpful in identifying potential warning signs of melanoma:

  1. Asymmetry:                                                                                                                   Normal moles are usually symmetrical, meaning if you were to draw a line through the center, the two halves would match. In melanoma, one half may look different from the other half.

  2. Border Irregularity:                                                                                                           Benign moles typically have smooth, well-defined borders. Melanomas often have uneven, irregular, or scalloped borders.

  3. Color Variation:                                                                                                               While normal moles are usually a single, even color (often brown or tan), melanomas can display various colors or shades within the same mole. Colors might include brown, black, blue, red, or white.

  4. Diameter:                                                                                                                                          Although melanomas can be smaller or larger, a general guideline is that moles larger than 6 millimeters (about the size of a pencil eraser) may warrant closer examination. 

  5. Evolving:                                                                                                                             This is the “E” added to the ABCDE rule. Any change in size, shape, color, elevation, or any new symptom such as bleeding, itching, or crusting, should be take seriously.

  6. Ugly Duckling Sign:                                                                                                            Pay attention to moles that stand out as different from your other moles, even if they don’t follow the ABCDE criteria precisely. 

  7. New Mole:                                                                                                                           The appearance of a new mole in adulthood, especially if it looks different from your other moles, can be a cause for concern.


Some key factors and causes associated with melanoma:

Melanoma is primarily causes by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun and tanning beds. UV radiation damages the DNA in skin cells, which can lead to the development of melanoma and other skin cancers.

  1. UV Radiation Exposure:                                                                                                   Prolonged or intense exposure to UV radiation is the most significant risk factor for melanoma. This exposure can come from natural sunlight or artificial sources like tanning beds and sunlamps. People who spend a lot of time in the sun, have a history of sunburns, or use indoor tanning facilities are at a higher risk.

  2. Fair Skin:                                                                                                                                 Individuals with fair or light skin are more susceptible to UV damage and have a higher risk of melanoma. This is because they have less melanin, the pigment that provides some protection against UV radiation.

  3. Age:                                                                                                                                  While melanoma can occur at any age, the risk increases with age. It is one of the most common cancers in young adults, but the average age of diagnosis is often around 65.
  4. Genetic Mutations:                                                                                                      Specific gene mutations, such as mutations in the BRAF or CDKN2A genes, can increase the risk of melanoma. These mutations may be inherited or acquired.
  5. History of Sunburn:                                                                                                         Experiencing severe sunburns, especially during childhood or adolescence, increases the risk of developing melanoma later in life.


Main stages of melanoma:

  1. Stage 0 (Melanoma in Situ):

            At this stage, the cancer is confine to the top layer of the skin (the epidermis) and               has not invaded deeper layers or spread to other parts of the body. It is often                        consider an early, highly curable stage.

     2.Stage I: 

          In this stage, the melanoma is still localize to the skin but has penetrate deeper into                the layers. It is isolate into two sub-stages:

          Stage IA: The tumor is small, less than 1 millimeter thick, and does not show                            ulceration  (breakdown of the skin).
          Stage IB: The tumor is either less than 1 millimeter thick with ulceration or 1 to 2                      millimeters thick without ulceration.

    3.Stage II:   

        At this stage, the melanoma has grown thicker and may have reached a deeper layer      of   skin, but it still hasn’t spread to lymph nodes or distant organs. Stage II is also isolate       into sub-stages based on tumor thickness and ulceration.

     4.Stage III:   

      In this stage, the melanoma has spread to nearby lymph nodes but has not yet reached          distant organs. The extent and number of affected lymph nodes, as well as the size of            the primary tumor, determine the sub-stage within Stage III.

    5.Stage IV:

This is the most advanced stage of melanoma, indicating that the cancer has                          metastasized to distant organs or tissues, such as the lungs, liver, brain, or bones. At this      stage, treatment options may include surgery, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, and            other systemic treatments to manage the spread of the cancer.

Several tests for melanoma

Staging melanoma is crucial for determining the extent of the cancer and guiding treatment decisions.

  1. Biopsy:                                                                                                                                 The diagnosis of melanoma is typically confirm through a biopsy. During this procedure, a sample of the suspicious skin lesion is remove and sent to a pathologist for examination under a microscope. The biopsy helps determine the thickness of the tumor and its characteristics.

  2. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy (SLNB):                                                                                             If melanoma is invasive and there is a risk it has spread to nearby lymph nodes, a sentinel lymph node biopsy may be performed. This procedure involves injecting a dye or radioactive material near the tumor to identify the sentinel lymph node, which is the first lymph node to receive drainage from the tumor site. If cancer cells are detected in the sentinel lymph node, it may indicate the need for additional lymph node surgery or further treatment.

  3. Imaging Tests: Imaging studies, such as:

    • Ultrasound: Used to evaluate lymph nodes near the primary tumor.
    • CT Scan (Computed Tomography): May be done to assess lymph nodes and organs for signs of metastasis.
    • MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging): Sometimes used for assessing specific areas of concern, such as the brain or spine.
    • PET Scan (Positron Emission Tomography): This test can help detect distant metastases by highlighting areas with increased metabolic activity, which may indicate the presence of cancer.
  4. BRAF Mutation Testing:                                                                                              Approximately half of melanomas have mutations in the BRAF gene. Identifying these mutations can guide treatment decisions, as there are many therapies available for individuals with specific BRAF mutations.

  5. Genetic Testing:                                                                                                                    In some cases, genetic testing may be recommend to assess the risk of familial melanoma or the presence of certain genetic mutations associate with the disease.

Some Treatment for skin cancer

Chemotherapy:                                                                                                                 Traditional chemotherapy drugs (e.g., dacarbazine, temozolomide) are use less frequently for melanoma than other treatments. They may be consider when other treatments are not effective, but they are generally less effective in melanoma compare to newer therapies.

Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) Treatment:

  • Surgical Excision: Like BCC, the primary treatment for SCC is surgical removal of the tumor, along with a margin of healthy tissue.

  • Mohs Micrographic Surgery: Mohs surgery can also be used for SCC, especially when the cancer is on the face or in areas where preserving healthy tissue is crucial.

  • Radiation Therapy: In some cases where surgery is not feasible or complete removal is challenging, radiation therapy may be use to treat SCC.

  • Curettage and Electrodessication: Similar to BCC, this procedure can be use for smaller, superficial SCCs.

Some dietary guidelines for Skin cancer

Eat a Variety of Fruits and Vegetables:                                                                                             Fruits and vegetables are rich in antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals that support overall health and may help protect your skin from damage causes by harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun. Some antioxidants, such as vitamin C and beta-carotene, are familiar to be particularly beneficial for skin health.

Omega-3 Fatty Acids:                                                                                                                          Foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids, such as fatty fish (salmon, mackerel, and trout), flaxseeds, and walnuts, may have anti-inflammatory properties that can benefit skin health.

Vitamin D:                                                                                                                                              Vitamin D is important for overall health, and some studies suggest that it may have a protective effect against certain types of skin cancer. However, it’s best to obtain vitamin D from a balance diet and safe sun exposure rather than supplements.

How to reduce your risk of melanoma skin cancer?

Protect Your Skin from the Sun:

  • Use Sunscreen:                                                                                                                Apply a broad-spectrum sunscreen with SPF 30 or higher to all exposed skin, including your face, neck, ears, and hands. Reapply every two hours, or more often if swimming or sweating.
  • Seek Shade:                                                                                                                      Whenever possible, stay in the shade, especially during peak sun hours (typically from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m.).
  • Wear Protective Clothing:                                                                                             Cover up with long-sleeved shirts, wide-brimmed hats, and sunglasses that provide UV protection.

Get Professional Skin Checks:                                                                                                Schedule regular skin checks with a dermatologist, especially if you have a family history of skin cancer or other risk factors. They can help detect skin cancer at an early, treatable stage.

Stay Hydrated:                                                                                                                                Proper hydration can help maintain skin health. Drink plenty of water to keep your skin well-hydrated.

Prognosis and Survival Rates

Factors Affecting Prognosis

Numerous factors influence the prognosis of melanoma. Explore what these factors are and how they impact your outlook.

Survival Statistics

Understanding melanoma survival statistics provides valuable insights into your chances of recovery.


In conclusion, melanoma is a formidable foe, but with knowledge and early detection, it can be effectively managed. By understanding its symptoms, stages, causes, treatment options, prevention strategies, and diagnosis methods, you empower yourself to take control of your skin health.


1.How long can I live with melanoma?

Here are some tips to help you live well with melanoma:

  • Stay positive and hopeful.
  • Take care of your physical and emotional health.
  • Get regular checkups with your doctor.

2.Is death from melanoma common?

There are many factors that can affect your risk of death from melanoma, including:

  • The stage of the cancer at diagnosis
  • Your age
  • Your overall health
  • How well you respond to treatment
  • The presence of other health conditions

3.Is melanoma painful?

Not always. Melanoma can be painless, even in its early stages. However, some melanomas can cause pain, especially as they grow larger or spread to other parts of the body.

The pain associated with melanoma can vary depending on the location of the tumor, its size, and how deeply it has spread. Some people with melanoma may experience a dull ache or a sharp pain. Others may have no pain at all.

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