Zika Virus outbreaks : What You Should Know

In a world teeming with infectious diseases, Zika virus stands out as a formidable foe. From the minute it made headlines, it became a cause of concern for health officials, pregnant women, and curious minds alike. But what is Zika virus, and how does it work? In this article, we’ll dive headfirst into the deep waters of Zika, exploring its symptoms, causes, diagnosis, treatment, transmission, and prevention. It’s time to decode the enigma of this tiny but notorious virus.

What is Zika Virus?

Zika virus, first identified in the Zika Forest of Uganda in 1947, belongs to the Flaviviridae family and is primarily transmit by Aedes mosquitoes, particularly Aedes aegypti. This small, seemingly innocuous virus, however, has caused global concern due to its association with birth defects and neurological complications.

Zika Virus Symptoms

The signs that the Zika virus brings along are essential to recognize.

Fever: Usually a low-grade fever.

Rash: Characterized by red spots.

Joint Pain: Often in the wrists, knees, and ankles.

Conjunctivitis: Red eyes, or “pink eye.”

Microcephaly: An abnormally small head and brain.

Other Brain Abnormalities: Such as eye defects.

Zika virus Transmission

However, there are some ways in which Zika virus can be transmitted:

Mother-to-Child Transmission:

Pregnant women infected with Zika can pass the virus to their developing fetus. This can result in congenital Zika syndrome, which can lead to birth defects in the baby.

Sexual Transmission:

Zika can be sexually transmitted from an infected person to their sexual partner, even if the infected individual is asymptomatic. The virus can be present in semen for an extended period, which makes safe sexual practices important for preventing transmission.

Blood Transfusions:

Zika can be transmitted through blood transfusions or organ transplantation if the donor is infected with the virus.

Laboratory Exposure:

Although rare, there have been cases of Zika virus transmission in laboratory settings when researchers or healthcare workers are exposed to the virus in a laboratory environment.

Diagnosis of Zika Virus

The diagnosis of Zika virus infection typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory testing, and consideration of an individual’s travel history or potential exposure to the virus. Here are the primary methods for diagnosing Zika virus:

Clinical Evaluation:

Healthcare providers will assess an individual’s symptoms, medical history, and recent travel or potential exposure to Zika virus. Common symptoms of Zika, such as fever, rash, joint pain, and conjunctivitis, can help guide the diagnosis.

Laboratory Testing:

Laboratory tests are used to confirm the presence of Zika virus in a person’s blood or other bodily fluids. The two main types of tests used for Zika diagnosis are

  • Molecular Tests: These tests detect the genetic material (RNA) of the Zika virus in blood, urine, or other bodily fluids. The most commonly used molecular test for Zika is the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). This test can confirm the presence of the virus within the first week or so of infection.
  • Serological Tests: Serological tests, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), detect the presence of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to the Zika virus. IgM antibodies, which develop early in the infection, can be detected within the first week of symptoms, while IgG antibodies may take longer to appear. A rise in IgG antibody levels can indicate a recent Zika infection.

Differential Diagnosis:

Zika virus shares symptoms with other mosquito-borne illnesses like dengue and chikungunya, as well as viral infections with similar symptoms. Differential diagnosis helps rule out other potential causes of the symptoms.

How to Treating Zika Virus

There is no specific antiviral medication to treat Zika virus infection. Treatment for Zika is primarily supportive and focuses on managing the symptoms and providing care to those affected. Here are some general guidelines for treating Zika virus:


Get plenty of rest to help your body fight off the infection. Fatigue is a common symptom of Zika, and resting can aid in the recovery process.


Drink plenty of fluids, such as water, to stay well-hydrated, especially if you have a fever. Dehydration can exacerbate symptoms.

Pain and Fever Relief:

Over-the-counter pain relievers like acetaminophen (Tylenol) can help reduce fever and alleviate pain and headache associated with Zika. Avoid using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like ibuprofen and aspirin, as they may increase the risk of bleeding complications.

Itch Relief:

For the rash and itching, you can use antihistamines as recommended by a healthcare provider to ease discomfort.

Avoid Aspirin and NSAIDs:

As mentioned earlier, it’s important to avoid aspirin and NSAIDs, as they can increase the risk of bleeding complications, which is a concern in some mosquito-borne illnesses.


Pregnant women who have been exposed to Zika should receive close monitoring and follow-up care to assess the health of the developing fetus, as Zika infection during pregnancy can lead to birth defects.

How to Preventing Zika

Here are some key steps to prevent Zika:

Use Mosquito Repellent:

Apply an EPA-registered insect repellent on exposed skin and clothing. Look for repellents that contain active ingredients like DEET, picaridin, or oil of lemon eucalyptus. Follow the product label instructions for safe and effective use.

Wear Protective Clothing:

When in areas with active Zika transmission, wear long-sleeved shirts, long pants, and socks to minimize exposed skin that mosquitoes can bite.

Stay in Air-Conditioned or Screened-In Areas:

If possible, stay in air-conditioned buildings or accommodations with window and door screens to keep mosquitoes out.

Eliminate Breeding Sites:

Reduce mosquito populations by eliminating standing water around your home. Mosquitoes that carry Zika breed in containers like flower pots, buckets, and tires that can hold even small amounts of water.

Protect Against Sexual Transmission:

If you or your partner have traveled to a Zika-affected area, or if you suspect Zika infection, practice safe sex, including using condoms or abstaining from sex, to prevent sexual transmission. Zika can be present in semen for an extended period.

Pregnant Women:

Pregnant women should be particularly cautious and consider postponing travel to areas with active Zika transmission, as the virus can cause birth defects in the developing fetus. If travel is unavoidable, strict measures to prevent mosquito bites should be taken.

Screen Blood Donations:

Healthcare systems in areas with active Zika transmission should screen blood donations to prevent transfusion-transmitted Zika.

zika virus

Global Impact of Zika

Here are some key aspects of the global impact of Zika:

  1. Public Health Impact:
    • Birth Defects: One of the most significant concerns with Zika virus was its association with congenital Zika syndrome. Babies born to mothers infected with Zika during pregnancy faced an increased risk of birth defects, including microcephaly (an abnormally small head and brain), as well as other neurological and developmental issues.
    • Neurological Complications: Zika was also linked to Guillain-Barré syndrome, a rare but serious neurological disorder that can result in muscle weakness and paralysis.
  2. Economic Impact:
    • Tourism and Travel: Areas with active Zika transmission saw a decline in tourism and travel, as pregnant women and those planning to conceive were advised to avoid regions with Zika outbreaks. This had economic repercussions for countries that rely on tourism.
    • Healthcare Costs: The treatment and care of individuals affected by Zika, especially those with severe birth defects, imposed significant healthcare costs on affected countries.
  3. Global Awareness and Preparedness:
    • Zika raised global awareness about the potential for emerging infectious diseases to spread rapidly and affect large populations. This led to a heightened sense of preparedness for future outbreaks and improved surveillance and response mechanisms.

Risk factor of zika

Zika virus infection can pose varying levels of risk to different individuals, and several factors can increase the risk of Zika transmission and its potential impact. Here are some key risk factors associated with Zika:

Geographic Location:

  • Traveling to or residing in areas with active Zika transmission increases the risk of exposure to infected mosquitoes. These regions are often found in tropical and subtropical areas.

Blood Transfusions and Organ Transplants:

  • Receiving blood transfusions or organ transplants from donors infected with Zika poses a risk of acquiring the virus through these procedures.

Weakened Immune System:

  • Individuals with weakened immune systems due to underlying medical conditions or certain medications may be at increased risk for severe complications if they become infected with Zika.

Inadequate Mosquito Control:

  • In areas where mosquito control measures are insufficient or where standing water is common, the risk of mosquito-borne diseases like Zika is higher.

Outdoor Activities:

  • Engaging in outdoor activities, such as camping, hiking, or sports, in areas with active Zika transmission without proper protection can increase the risk of mosquito exposure.

Unprotected Sexual Activity:

  • Engaging in sexual activity without using barrier methods like condoms, especially with a partner who has traveled to or resides in an area with Zika transmission, can increase the risk of sexual transmission.


Zika virus is not a foe to be taken lightly. It can lead to severe health issues, especially for pregnant women. Being aware of its symptoms, causes, diagnosis, treatment, transmission, and prevention is crucial. While there’s no specific cure, prevention is the best approach. By following the steps outlined in this article, you can significantly reduce your risk of Zika infection.


1.Is Zika still a worry?

Yes, Zika is still a worry, but the risk has decreased significantly since the major outbreak in 2015-2016. As of October 30, 2023, there are no active Zika outbreaks in any country, but Zika virus transmission persists at low levels in several countries in the Americas and other endemic regions.

2.What does a Zika bite look like?

A Zika bite usually looks like a small, red bump. It may be itchy or painful. The bite may appear anywhere on the body, but it is most common on the arms, legs, and face.

3.How long does Zika stay in body

Zika virus usually stays in the blood of an infected person for about a week. However, it may stay in the urine and semen for longer. In pregnant women, the virus may stay in the blood for up to two weeks.

4.Is Zika highly contagious?

Zika virus is not as highly contagious as some other viruses, such as measles or influenza. However, it can still be easily spread through mosquito bites and sexual contact.

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